The monthly mean sunspot number (blue) and 13-month smoothed monthly sunspot number (red) for the last five cycles.

SILSO data/image, Royal Observatory of Belgium, Brussels

Daily sunspot number (yellow), monthly mean sunspot number (blue), smoothed monthly sunspot number (red) for the last 13 years and 12-month ahead predictions of the monthly smoothed sunspot number: SC (red dots) : prediction method based on an interpolation of Waldmeier’s standard curves; It is only based on the sunspot number series. CM (red dashes) : method (from K. Denkmayr and P. Cugnon) combining a regression technique applied to the sunspot number series with the aa geomagnetic index used as a precursor (improved predictions during the minimum phase between solar cycles).

The North and South components of the monthly smoothed sunspot number for the last five cycles (13-month smoothed monthly values). Green fill color when the North number is higher than the South number, and red color when South is higher than North.